Transnational Welfare Provision by Non-state Actors: Comparative Evidence from Turkey and Sudan
Following an ambitious economic liberalization program in Turkey, there has been a gradual increase in the activities of transnational philanthropic associations as poverty became more and more visible in the public sphere. While domestic activities of these charities are oriented towards individualized charity provision, these organizations channel a notably higher sum to providing developmental charity overseas. Why do religious non-state actors provide more extensive aid in some settings but not in others? To explain this variation, this paper focuses on the relationship between the state and non-state actors, and highlights the role of political context and decision-makers. Based on evidence from Turkish and Sudanese contexts, and using Germany as a shadow case, I argue that in liberalizing settings with limited resources, incumbents political priorities creates or limits opportunities available to non-state actors in public goods provision and co-production across domestic and international settings.